More Writing But Less Grading: Calibrated Peer Review
John C. Wise
Pennsylvania State University
The belief that the best way to really learn
a new concept is to research and write about it is well accepted. The higher-level
thinking involved in sifting through information ("analysis" in Bloom's
taxonomy) and combining new data with existing knowledge ("synthesis"
in Bloom) in a well-written essay or research paper requires cognitive effort
that pays off in improved understanding. We may all agree that more writing in
our courses is a good thing, but how can it be incorporated without increasing
an already heavy investment of time in grading, especially if we want to include
valuable feedback for each student? Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an on-line
tool designed to take advantage of the positive effects of writing, while mitigating
- Review of CPR CPR is based on the scientific model
of writing in which a researcher submits his or her work for blind review by peers
and also participates as a reviewer for other researchers. In a typical CPR assignment,
each student will generate a piece of writing and submit it to the CPR site. After
all students have completed the writing phase, they enter a calibration phase.
In calibration, each student reviews three samples of work related to the just-completed
assignment. The scores they provide are compared to scores previously assigned
by the professor. Later, grades assigned by students who are more similar to the
professor in these calibrations will be more heavily weighted than others. After
completing the calibration, students are presented with three anonymous writings
to evaluate, followed by a final look at their own. Final grades for each CPR
assignment are computed by the system with weightings set by the professor.
Uses Anecdotal reports indicate that most student writing that is currently
submitted for grading, particularly in the early undergraduate years, is usually
of first-draft rather than final draft quality. CPR can be utilized to keep students
on schedule with several drafts during the semester and almost guarantee an improved
product by the end of the semester, with little increase in faculty workload.
Difficult concepts can be addressed through short writing assignments as a method
for learning, and writing ability should increase with use. The scoring and feedback
pages keep the professor informed regarding each student's performance, and these
data may be used in ABET-style assessments.
- Be able to describe the advantages of learning through
- Be able to describe the peer-review process used by the on-line
- Become aware of the possibility of participating in a network
of colleges sharing on-line engineering writing assignments through CPR